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Must-know concepts of Deep learning

Deep learning uses ANNs to model and solve the toughest problems. ANNs, essentially modeled after biological neurons in the human brain, analyze and alter data without requiring human feature engineering. They have demonstrated effectiveness in speech recognition, to mention a few. Convolutional neural networks, also called CNNs have become the most used architectures. Cloud computing and specialized hardware, like GPUs, have made training more accessible.

What exactly is deep learning? 

Deep learning is a kind of machine learning (ML) that employs an ANN architecture made up of linked neurons. Each neuron transfers input from the previous neuron to the following one. The network performs nonlinear transformations on incoming data, allowing it to learn complicated representations of the data. This procedure continues until the last layer generates the network’s output.

Deep Learning has become a prevalent and prominent field of ML thanks to its success in a wide range of uses, including NLP, and reinforcement learning.

Types of Deep Learning

1. Supervised Machine Learning

Supervised machine learning is a process in which neural networks learn to predict or categorize data using labeled datasets. This method, called backpropagation, employs input characteristics and destination variables. Deep learning uses CNNs for image classification, sentiment analysis, and language translation.

2. Unsupervised Machine Learning: 

Unsupervised machine learning is an ML approach in which a neural network learns to recognize patterns or cluster datasets using unlabeled information. There are no target variables present. At the same time, the computer must determine the overlooked patterns or correlations in the datasets. Unsupervised tasks, such as clustering and anomaly detection, are carried out employing deep learning approaches like generative models.

3. Reinforcement Machine Learning

Reinforcement Machine Learning is a machine learning approach that teaches an agent how to make decisions in a given environment to maximize a reward signal. The agent engages with the environment by performing action and monitoring the outcomes. Deep learning may be used to learn policies, or a sequence of behaviors, that maximize the cumulative reward over time. Deep reinforcement learning techniques such as Deep Q networks are used to reinforce activities like robotics and gaming, among others.

Artificial neural networks

Artificial neural networks, or neural networks, are designed to mimic the structure and function of human neurons. They are made up of an input layer, a concealed layer, and units that are linked in a sequence of layers. The input layer takes data from the outside world, and the hidden layer calculates the weighted sum of the inputs from the preceding levels. The weights of these connections optimize the effects of inputs, resulting in improved model performance. The complexity of neural networks is determined by the underlying patterns in the dataset. In a fully connected network, units are connected by weights that determine how much one unit impacts another. The neural network learns additional information about the data as it progresses from one unit to the next, eventually providing an output.

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Machine Learning algorithms vs Deep Learning algorithms

Machine Learning algorithms

  • It can work on a smaller dataset.
  • It is excellent for low-label tasks.
  • Employs statistical methods to discover hidden patterns and correlations in the dataset.
  • Training the model takes less time.
  • A model is developed by manually extracting important information from photos to detect an item.
  • It is less complicated, and it is easier to comprehend the outcome.
  • It can work on the CPU and requires less computer resources than deep learning.

Deep Learning algorithms

  • It requires a larger dataset than machine learning.
  • It is better suited for complicated tasks such as image processing and natural language processing.
  • The dataset’s underlying patterns and correlations are learned using an artificial neural network design.
  • It takes extra time to train the model.
  • Relevant characteristics are automatically retrieved from photos. It is a whole learning process.
  • It functions more intricately and makes it difficult to grasp the outcome in black box form.
  • It demands a powerful computer with a GPU.

Uses for Deep Learning

1. Object detection and recognition: A deep learning model can recognize and locate objects in photos and videos, allowing computers to do jobs like self-driving automobiles, surveillance, and robotics. 

2. Image classification: Images may be categorized into groups such as buildings, plants, and animals using deep learning models. This is used for medical imaging, quality control, and picture retrieval. 

3. Image segmentation: Deep learning models may be used to segment images into distinct regions, allowing certain characteristics to be identified within them.

Deep Learning Pros and Cons

Deep Learning Pros:

  • Automated feature engineering: Identifies and learns relevant characteristics from data without requiring operator intervention.
  • Scalability: Can handle enormous, complicated datasets and learn from vast volumes of data.
  • Flexibility: Applies to a variety of data formats, including pictures, text, and speech.
  • Continuous improvement: Improves performance with additional data.
  • High accuracy: Deep Learning algorithms may reach cutting-edge performance in a variety of tasks, including image identification and natural language processing.

Deep Learning Cons

High computational requirements: Training and optimization necessitate the use of enormous volumes of data and computing resources.

• Huge quantity of labeled data: It requires a ton of data, which is costly and time-consuming to collect.

Interpretability: Deep learning models’ decision-making processes are difficult to grasp.

Overfitting: This can lead to poor performance on fresh and unseen data.

Black box nature: It’s difficult to grasp how deep learning models make predictions.


Deep learning, despite its excellent accuracy and scalability, has significant processing needs, enormous labeled data requirements, and interpretability issues, making its fit for certain applications critical.