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Delegated Proof-of-Stake in blockchain

Consensus processes, which require nodes to concur on the current state of a decentralised network, are the foundation of blockchain technology. Instead of proof-of-work (PoW), proof-of-success (PoS) rewards users with native tokens for network security and data validation. That being said, there may be significant variations in the implementation and functioning of different PoS. A form of PoS consensus method called Delegated Proof of Stake (DPoS) includes a vote and delegation mechanism for more democratic procedures.

What Is DPoS, or Delegated Proof of Stake?

A blockchain consensus method called Delegated Proof of Stake allows network members to choose delegates to vote for and approve the next block. DPoS employs a collateral staking technique similar to a typical proof-of-stake process. It does, however, employ a special democratic method designed to alleviate POS’s constraints. This enables it to provide a more inexpensive, efficient, and equitable method of validating transactions.

What Is the Process of Delegated Proof of Stake?

Blockchain networks are secured by Delegated Proof-of-Stake (DPoS), a democratic consensus technique. Delegates, often referred to as witnesses or block producers, are chosen by users to have block validation rights. Based on the blockchain, different delegates are selected for every block. Tokens are gathered by users into a staking pool and assigned to a delegate. Transaction fees are paid to the delegate who has the most tokens when they verify a block. Users who backed them are given rewards according to their stake. Strong-reputation delegates are usually elected as witnesses, and voters retain influence over the system.

Networks Employing Delegated Proof of Stake

  • EOS is an open-source blockchain created by Daniel Larimer and Block. one that enables scalability with minimal latency. It contains 21 delegates that validate transactions and create new blocks for the system.
  • Tron, founded by Justin Sun, is a low-cost platform with delegates known as Super Representatives (SRs). At each election, users stake TRX to vote for five SRs, and the top 27 candidates are nominated as witnesses.

The Pros of DPoS

1. Accessibility: As no specialized or expensive equipment is required, anybody can become a delegate. 

2. Democracy: Because there is a low barrier to entry, more individuals may participate in a consensus process, making it democratic and financially inclusive.

3. Flexibility: Because the network has a limited amount of delegates, it allows for speedier consensus, resulting in better performance.

4. Environmentally Friendly: Because the network requires less electricity to operate, it is more sustainable.

DPoS’s problems

1. Centralization

DPoS, a distributed ledger system, attempts to solve centralization but fails owing to its restricted number of delegates in each new block, leaving it prone to vote buying and collusion among delegates, making it vulnerable to fraudulent transactions and a concentration of power in a small group.

2. Malicious Delegates

A DPoS system that limits the conspiring power of delegates raises the possibility of a 51% assault, in which malicious delegates influence the network. Token holders can delegate voting power, which allows bad actors to bribe delegates and control the network, including pushing harmful updates.

3. Relying on Delegators

DPoS demands a large number of active delegators who are enthusiastic and well-informed. This includes studying the delegates for whom you intend to vote and distributing your delegation across numerous delegates to spread your risks. Users with a lower stake may even decline to vote because they believe their vote is unimportant.

What Distinguishes NPoS from DPoS?

Delegated proof of stake (DPoS) and Nominated proof of stake (NPoS) are comparable consensus procedures that differ somewhat. Both nominators and validators put up collateral beneath the NPoS, allowing them to be penalized for poor behaviour. This approach is employed in blockchains such as Polkadot, where poor behaviour by both nominators and validators may be penalized. In DPoS, only validators are penalized for poor behaviour, implying that delegators are not punished for malicious validators’ acts.


DPoS allows anyone to make contributions to blockchain networks with large amounts of money; however, it has drawbacks, such as decentralization concerns. Blockchain technology continues to evolve, resulting in new and improved systems like Web 3.0, which strives for a decentralized future.